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Association Of Preterm Births Among Us Latina Women With The 2016 Presidential Election

Prior to the 1970s, the majority of the Latino migratory work was agriculturally based. However, with the end of the Bracero program, the United States policy on migration within the hemisphere shifted from encouraging primarily working males to migrate. Beginning with the Watershed amendment of 1965, the United States shifted their policy to encourage the migration of whole families by issuing less visas to unskilled single men and more visas to families.

While men typically migrate at a young age concentration of 18-25, females migrate at generally consistent rates at all age groups. While Latinos almost always migrate to the United States in search of work, Latina migration follows a pattern heavily tied to family life. The word Latina is the feminine form of the word Latino, and represents strictly the female population of this ethnic group. The word Latino is short for LatinoAmericano, which translates to Latin American. It was originally adopted in the US for the purpose of additional categorization of the population in the United States Census.

Figure 1 shows the expected monthly counts under the counterfactual scenario in which the 2016 election did not take place as well as the observed counts of male and female preterm births to Latina women during the test period. All birth count variables exhibited strong seasonality for male and female births. Consistent with convention,32 we therefore differenced the birth count series at 12 months to remove seasonality.

Violent events in El Salvador, Guatemala and Honduras the number of Latinas entering the United States with families has nearly doubled in 2015. Likewise, many Latina women identified their primary reason for immigration was to reunite with family already in the United States. After they Bay of Pigs failure, many middle class Cuban families sought escape from the newly communist Cuba in the United States. Thus, many Cuban women found themselves in the United States as a result of their family.

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From , Hispanic men were 10 percent less likely to be diagnosed with prostate cancer than non-Hispanic white men. But as she grew older, she became determined to stop the disease that claimed the lives of too many family members for so long. Like many other Hispanic women, Eva spent her time as a caregiver for her family rather than thinking about herself. Our female cardiologists are experts in cardiology and integrative medicine and specialize in female heart disease.

Her stepfather’s later political appointment brought her family to live in Santa Fe where her maternal uncle was a major politician who had played a key role during the state constitutional convention. She used those connections in her fight for suffrage and also played a key role in ensuring that the state legislature ratified the 19th Amendment in February 1920.

I agree that the line “Latina must be taught balance and discipline” to that we as people all need to learn balance and discipline. Not to mention I start the article by mentioning that this does not apply to all Latina women.

In post-mammography surveys, those receiving individual and group education sessions reported similar rates of satisfaction with care, which were higher than those reported by patients who did not have access to the promotora. We also found evidence that the number of male and female preterm births over and above expected values peaked in February and July 2017. As noted above, these peaks would suggest critical periods near conception and during the second trimester, assuming the election marked the onset of stress.

We also explored our data for other associations concerned with the timing of parturition. Second, we applied outlier detection methods33 to the model estimated in step 4 to determine whether cohorts born before the election, but whose mothers were exposed to the rhetoric of the 2016 campaign , may have yielded preterm births different from expected. The circumstances surrounding the 2016 US presidential election have been proposed as a significant stressor in the lives of the US Latino population. Few studies to date, however, have evaluated the population health implications of the election for Latina mothers and their children.

Penn Medicine is committed to improving lives and health through a variety of community-based programs and activities. In fiscal year 2019, Penn Medicine provided more than $583 million to benefit our community. This work was supported by institutional funds from the University of Pennsylvania and National Institutes of Health grants .

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Seventeen percent of Latina women receive Medicaid, compared to 9 percent for white women. Hypertension is slightly less prevalent among Latina women, at 29 percent, than among white women, at 31 percent. Latinas are more likely to lack health coverage among America’s uninsured women, with more than 38 percent being uninsured.

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An additional methodological limitation was that our comparison intervention also focused on HIV, rather than serving as a true placebo to guard against Hawthorne effects. Thus, future HIV prevention trials would benefit from inclusion of a time-equivalent comparison condition that focuses on a topic other than HIV prevention but addresses a relevant and important health issue for Latina women. We relied on self-report data, had a relatively short follow-up, were unable to assess condom use by partner type, and lacked objective and quantifiable biological outcomes, such as incident sexually transmitted infections, to assess intervention efficacy. Future trials of HIV interventions conducted with ethnically diverse samples of Latina women would benefit by addressing these limitations. The efficacy of AMIGAS may also be partly attributable to inclusion of Latina women and integration of Latina cultural values in all facets of the study, from the conceptualization, adaptation, and implementation of the intervention to the recruitment and retention of participants and study evaluation.

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